Facial Beauty Theory and the YoungVolumizer
See Dr. Young Explain his Award Winning Theory on Facial Beauty in this video:
The YoungVolumizer is based on Dr. Young's Theory on Facial Beauty: One of the main reasons the Young Volumizer is such an amazing procedure is because the procedure is based on Dr. Young's Theory on Facial Beauty. The YoungVolumizer is an amazing, break through incision-less face lift that can achieve the younger and natural you. Through our Introduction of the Young Volumizer, you will find that this procedure is going to change our ways of facial rejuvenation and facial plastic surgery. Below is an explanation of Dr. Young's Theory on Facial Beauty. This theory is used by our physicians when they perform the YoungVolumizer to restore the younger and natural you. Because the Young Volumizer volumizes your face, this procedure is based on the surgeon's artistic interpretation of what will make you look beautiful. This theory on facial beauty aids in this interpretation and guides our doctors to place the volume in just the right way. The end result is that you will feel and look rejuvenated, and feel a breath of fresh air...
Facial Beauty Explained:
Previous Theories on Facial Beauty: Our knowledge of facial beauty has not changed significantly since Leonardo Da Vinci discovered the neoclassical canons in the 1400's. If you ask any plastic surgeon today, or any person that is among the leaders of understanding what beauty is, their answers will be different and based on their own subjectivity. There are many who believe that facial beauty is defined by this magical number phi (1.618) that explains the aesthetic proportions of the face. Simply described, phi is really just the proportion 2/3's. Others believe that "averageness" is beautiful. This came about when a researcher wanted to find out if there were facial structures that spawned or was associated with criminal behavior. That researcher discovered that the average morphed face of these criminals were more attractive than the each individual were by themselves. Further studies showed that this theory of averageness was incorrect and that there was something special that made the more beautiful different from the average face compilation. More other studies have disproven Leonardo Da Vinci's theories as well. Many recent studies have now shown that these ideas are all incorrect. This can be disconcerting given the fact that most plastic surgeons, and the text books that they read and learn from, still quote Leonardo Da Vinci's theories as the predominant theory on facial beauty. Other theories exist but the bottom line is that the answer has not been found.
You can continue to read below to find out more about Dr. Young's amazing theory on facial beauty. Here are also some links to some other articles written by Dr. Young on this subject that can help you understand his theory:
2. Original paper on his theory in the Archives of Facial Plastic Surgery, Circles of Prominence, A New Theory on Facial Aesthetics.
PREVIOUS THEORIES AND CLUES TO A NEW THEORY ON FACIAL BEAUTY
Finding the Answer to Facial Beauty: To find the answer to facial beauty, one needs to look at older theories to see what ideas have dominated our thoughts on beauty. Doing this can give us clues to what might be the answer. Based on my research, the problem with previous theories were that they were based on external landmarks that were unimportant to observers of a new face. These external landmarks did not occupy the attention of the observer when they assessed whether a particular face is beautiful or not. The canons, by Leonardo Da Vinci, were based on landmarks such as the trichion (hairline), glabella (in between the eyes), subnasale (directly under the nose) and mentum (bottom of the chin), which have little relevance to what people concentrate on when they are determining beauty within a face the are looking at (see the green dots in the picture below).
The Iris is the Key to the Answer to Facial Beauty: So what do people look at? To find what this answer is, may be the start of finding out what might make a face beautiful or not. After all, it seems reasonable to base a theory on facial beauty on what an observer of a new face finds the most important. Neuropsychologists have studied the eye movements when people look at pictures of a face. What they have found is that they concentrate on the eyes, nose and mouth and then other landmarks within the face. But most interestingly, and probably obviously, they return repeatedly to the eyes, nose and mouth. Specifically, as you look carefully at these studies, the eye movements are centered predominately on the iris, or the colored portion of the eye. That is probably why the whites of our eyes are so stark white in color. When we think of how we talk to one another, we can come to the realization that we do indeed spend most of our time focusing on the iris from an everyday point of view. This was the beginning for Dr. Young's discovery of a new theory on facial beauty.
CIRCLES OF PROMINENCE
All Shapes and Sizes in the Face are related to the Iris: With that in mind, Circles of Prominence (COP) theorizes that the size of the iris determines every dimension and shape within the face. Every shape and distance on the face has a theoretical ideal and this ideal can be defined by a numeric value. Between zero and infinity there has to be a median, or numeric value, that the brain prefers. Because we spend so much time focusing on the iris when we analyze a face for beauty, the COP holds that it is the size of the iris or a proportion of it (i.e., 1/2 to 1 iris width, etc.) that defines the ideal. Application of this thought shows that the nasal dorsum, nasal tip, alae, the distance from the subnasale to upper lip, and height of the lower lip are all one iris width (IW) in dimension (See Figure 1 Below).
Figure 1: The Circles of Prominence: a collection of shapes and angles based on the iris, nasal tip, and lower lip that define facial beauty qualitatively and quantitatively. The iris, nasal dorsum, nasal tip, alae, and lower lip are all one iris width (IW) in dimension.
Beauty Units of the Eye, Nose and Mouth: The next level of organization that determines beauty in the face are the major Anatomical Beauty Units of the Eyes, Nose and Mouth. The face can be simply thought of as a collection of shapes within a larger oval. Within the face the eyes, nose and mouth are the major shapes within that oval. When people are asked to judge whether a circle within a box is more aesthetically pleasing right in the center versus an asymmetric position, the majority will prefer the central location. This preference for order applies to the idea of beauty in the face as well. Because the eyes, nose and mouth are the main zones of the face, the distance between them should be separated in an equal way. This equality creates the symmetry that we desire in a beautiful face.
Primary Circles of Prominence Determine how the Main Beauty Units Relate to One Another: Within these major structures, the iris, nasal tip and lower lip are the primary COPs or centers of the eye, nose and mouth. Because of their importance, their location signifies to the brain that they are the center for that particular anatomical zone. The iris is the center for the eye zone. The nasal tip is the center for the nose zone. And the center of the lower lip is the center of the mouth zone. Hence these zone are symmetrical with one another when those center COPs are equally spaced from one another (See Figure 2 Below)
Figure 2: The basic Circles of Prominence (COP) are the iris, nasal tip and lower lip. These shapes serve as centerpieces from which successive COP arise to define the face. Distance between these basic shapes is ideally at three iris widths (IWs)
Within the Eyes there are Four Circles of Prominences: Hence, the distance from the pupil to midline, from the horizontal level of the pupil to the nasal tip, from tip to lower lip, and from lower lip to the mentum should all be three IWs Figure 2). The size of the iris also determines the distance between all structures within structures. Within the eye there are four COP (Figure 3).
Figure 3: The COP in the eye and mouth are equal in size and shape. All dimensions of the face are defined by the width of the iris; SO indicates second oblique.
Eye COP's are defined: The first and primary COP is the iris. The next COP is two IWs high and three wide. The second COP is defined by the distance between the limbus to the medial or lateral canthus is one IW(one on each side plus the iris itself = 3 iris widths); the distance from eyelid ciliary margin to palpebral fold is 1/2 IW, which is also the distance from the lower lid margin to the bottom of the shadow produced by the pretarsal muscle bunching. This creates the 2 x 3 IW dimension of the second COP. The third COP is four iris widths high and five wide. This COP is delineated by the top of the eyebrow, lateral edge of the nasal dorsum, lateral orbital rim and the center of the cheek highlight. This is defined by the 1/2 IW distance from the palpebral fold to the bottom eyebrow and 1/2 iris width height of the eyebrow. From the bottom of the pretarsal bunching, the center of the cheek highlight is one IW inferiorly located. It is one IW from the medial canthi to the lateral edge of the nasal dorsum, and it is one IW from the lateral canthi to the lateral orbital rim. The fourth eye COP is a circle centered at the pupil that is three IWs in radius that is further delineated by the midline, lateral edge of the face, and top of the highlight produced by the brow prominence, and inferiorly by the junction of the vertical plane through the pupil and the second oblique, (the middle diagonal red line, See Figure 4 Below).
Figure 4: The basic COP's are central in forming three obliques and one vertical that define the face and bring attention to the eye.
The Oblique Lines and their Importance to Facial Beauty: The pupil, nasal tip and the highlight produced by the brow's prominence below the lateral portion of the eyebrow form an association termed the first oblique in Figure 4, above (FO). The alignment of these structures directs attention toward the eye. The second oblique (SO) is parallel to the first, begins at the lower lip, and delineates the upper border of the lateral cheek shadowing along with the vertical plane through the pupil which defines the medial border of the cheek shadowing. The SO also defines the ideal location for the top of the ear (the ideal location of the ear that has never been determined). The intersection of the vertical plane through the pupil and the SO defines the lower edge of the fourth COP within the eye aesthetic unit (Figure 3 and 4 Above). The third oblique (TO) begins at the mentum, is parallel to the first two and defines the ideal location for the lower part of the ear (Figure 4). This is another new finding for the ideal location of the ear.
Mouth COPS's Defined in Facial Beauty: The mouth is associated with the eyes subconsciously and geometrically. The more the two aesthetic units are similar in shape and dimension the more beautiful. The mouth COP are identical in size and shape to the eye COP. The first mouth COP is the height of the lower lip — one IW (Figure 1). The second mouth COP is two IWs high and three wide. The second mouth COP is the area of the lips that are highlighted the most when viewed by the observer. The height of the upper lip is 1/2 IW and the shadowing below the lower lip's protuberance produces shadowing 1/2 IW. The upper lips is analogous to the upper eyelid crease in height and dimension. The shadowing under the lower lip is analogous to the pretarsal bunching of the lower eyelid. The puckering of the lower lip produces a highlight that is three IWs wide — the exact horizontal dimension of the horizontal palpebral fissure. The third mouth COP is four IWs high and five wide, delineated by the subnasale, commissures and center of the chin highlight. This is explained by the one IW distance from the upper lip to the subnasale, the one IW distance from the lateral edges of the lip puckering to the commissures, and the one IW distance from the lower lip shadowing to the center of the chin highlight. The fourth COP is a circle three IWs in radius centered at the lower lip, delineated by the center of the nasal tip, melolabial folds and the mentum (Figure 3).
Why is it important to have the Mouth COP's relate to the Eye COP's: The importance of the eye mouth relationship is how animation of the mouth through speech, smiling, etc. brings life to the eyes. This effect is enhanced, and hence beauty is amplified, the more these two major structures resemble each other.
Figure 5: The largest COP (fourth) of the eye and mouth are equal to the interpupillary distance and half-face width (horizontal blue lines). The eye and mouth are further related by 67.5° (oblique blue lines). The intersection of the second oblique with the vertical through the pupil is related to the mentum and this relation is similar to the relation of the nasal tip and the top of the highlight above the eyebrow (green and pink arrows respectively).
Figure 6: The angles of the medial and lateral eyebrows, nasal tip to alae, and lower lip to commissures are each 18°. The angle of the horizontal palpebral fissure is 9°. Everything in the face is related by shape, size and angles.
Other Important Relationships within the Face that help define Facial Beauty: The beauty of the eyes is also accentuated with the shadowing created by the forehead when its flat plane assumes a slightly more posterior course aligning with the vertical planes of the pupil. The shadowing produced by the dental arches as they slope posteriorly also aligns with the vertical lane of the pupil with the cheek (Figure 4). The diameter of the largest COP within the eye and mouth is equal to half face width and interpupillary width. They are further associated by 67.5° (Figure 5). The angles of the medial and lateral eyebrows, nasal tip to alae, and lower lip to commissures are each 18°(red lines Figure 6). The angle of the horizontal palpebral fissure is 9°. All of the structures and shapes of the face are ideally adherent to either 90°, 67.5°, 45°, 18°, 9°, or 0° (Figures 5 and 6).These elements — combined with the shapes, distances, and obliques defined by the IW — emphasize the iris and the eyes as well as promote harmony, symmetry and proportion.
ELEMENTS OF BEAUTY
Beauty is Order: Beauty is really just order in the face. We are highly organized beings. Through evolution we have developed an extreme desire and need for order in our lives. It is the very essence of our survival. We thus desire order in the face. Order in the face is interpreted by us as beauty. Of course a subtle transition between the shapes is paramount. You can have order and yet look mechanical. The subtle changes of the highlights in the face convey the beauty to the viewer. To further simplify about our discussion: when the shapes are symmetrically set within the face's oval shape; when the sizes of the shapes are equal and thus in harmony; when the progressive circles increase in equal proportions; and when all shapes are oriented together in a unified way (through angles); "beauty" is achieved.
Past Challenges that Prevented the Discovery of Facial Beauty: There are many reasons why the answer to facial beauty has eluded us all of this time. The right side of the brain has been shown to play a predominant role in appreciating beauty, while the left side of the brain is analytical. Hence our reasoning was separated from this appreciation, connected only by the corpus collosum. The corpus collosum is much smaller than the halves of the brain, so much is lost when the two halves of the brain communicate. Also, beauty is appreciated from the visual cortex to the homunculus all the way down to the brainstem. The limbic system plays a very strong role as well, the area of our brain that controls much of the body's sensation of emotion. This further explains the difficulty our left brain has in piecing the parts together, our appreciation of beauty was separated by different areas that process information in different ways. In addition, the elements of beauty are determined by subtleties that are hard to define — shading that changes with angles of light and minor variations in faces that are close to the ideal. The same shading that is also responsible for the subtleties that are needed in the face for beauty. All of these elements added to the difficulty for us to find the exact ideal.